Published Research 2005

Archive list of Scottish transport research which has been completed and results published, when this list was originally written in 2005.

Air

Air Travel Demand in Scotland

  • Issue: 25 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: TRi
  • Partner researchers: ERI
  • Client: DfT and Scottish Executive
  • Contact: Prof. R McQuaid

Dealing with the External Costs of Air Transport

  • Issue: 23 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: CfIT
  • Client: DfT
  • Summary: It is thought that the DfT should focus, not on the question of full coverage of external costs, but on how to develop solid incentives for increasing economic efficiency and social welfare. For this purpose it is marginal, rather total, external costs that should be internalised. The list of externalities for which policy measures to internalise external costs can be developed includes the following impacts: climate change; changed in local air quality; noise and congestion of runway slots and air space. The existence of these external costs is virtually undisputed, both in the scientific literature and among key stakeholders, and there is sufficient quantitative evidence available for agreement to be feasibly reached on appropriate levels of internalisation. It is recommended to intensify research on other externalities such as ozone depletion, water and soil pollution etc. It is not recommended to internalise the external costs arising outside the aviation sector (e.g. those of airport surface transport) means of policy measures affecting aviation directly. Instead, it recommends that economic efficiency will be improved if these external costs are internalised t source where there is greatest potential road traffic reduction in relation to access to and from airports.
  • Further information: http://www.cfit.gov.uk/research/aec/

Area Studies

Edinburgh and Forth Valley Corridor Study

  • Issue: 30 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: MVA
  • Partner researchers: Scott Wilson, David Simmonds Consultancy, Hargest and Wallace Planning
  • Summary: To undertake integrated transport corridor studies on five corridors around Edinburgh and the Forth Valley. The study involved a combination of park and ride modelling, highway demand amangement, public and stakeholder consultation, bus priority design, microsimulation modelling, accessibility analysis, TRAM/DELTA LUTI modelling, highway engineering, Public transport operations design and STAG appraisal.

Community Transport

Healthcheck of Community Transport in Glasgow

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: DHC
  • Client: Glasgow Community Transport Operators Group/Glasgow City Council
  • Summary: This project involved work with each of the community transport operators in Glasgow to identify the administrative, funding and legislative structure for their operations in recognition of the major increases in funding bein provided through the Scottish Executive urban community transport grant pilots.

Disability

Transport Provision for Disabled People in Scotland (DD Research Findings 2004 No 180)

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Reid Howie Associates
  • Client: Scottish Executive
  • Summary: This follow up to research for the Scottish Office in 1998 was commissioned by the Scottish Executive in 2003 to identify and assess progress made by policy makers and transport operators since 1998 inn providing accessible transport for disable people in Scotland.
  • Further information: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/cru/resfinds/drf180-00.asp

Environment

Environmental Impacts of Aviation in terms of Carbon Emissions, Local Air Quality and Noise Pollution

  • Issue: 24 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Environmental Resource Management
  • Client: HIE
  • Summary: Quantify the environmental impacts of aviation in terms of carbon emissions local air quality and noise pollution. The research examined all scheduled services operating to and from airports in the region, and estimate the total environmental cost of aviation in the Highlands and Island, as well as for individual routes.
  • Further information: http://www.hie.co.uk/HIE-aviation-environment03.pdf

Soil Washing

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Carl Bro
  • Client: SecondSite Property (part of National Grid Transco)
  • Summary: Soil Washing has been used in America and mainland Europe for the past ten to 15 years but is a relatively new technique to the UK. Soil washing is a technique that separates and cleans certain types of contaminated solid and significantly reduces the column of contaminated material requiring waste disposal. A by-product of this process is well-graded aggregate that can be used for construction purposes. This process reduced the volume of material requiring disposal to landfill, associate transportation, by 80%. As well as the environmental benefits of traffic reduction and disposal, the cleaned material can often be reused – reducing costs for importing material and protecting valuable aggregate resources.
  • Contact: Mike Wilyman, Remediation Direction, CarlBro UK

Freight

Container Transhipment and Demand for Container Terminal Capacity in Scotland

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Alf Baird (TRi Maritime Research Group Napier University)
  • Client: Scottish Enterprise, Scottish Executive, HIE
  • Summary: This report argues that international container ports at Hunterston and Scapa Flow would be both in a very strong position to compete in a fast-growing market. The report found that the proposed developments would offer significant benefits for major shipping companied and be a large boost for the local and Scottish economies. The ports would serve different markets and not be in direct competition.
  • Further information: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/transport/ctdctcs.pdf

Impacts of Introducing 44 Tonne Lorries

  • Issue: 28 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Professor Alan McKinnon (Heriot-Watt University)
  • Summary: The introduction of 44 tonne lorries has given substantial benefits. Operating cost have fallen while lorry kilometres have reduced. There has been little impact on the amount of freight carried by rail. Greater use of super-single tyres has added to road wear and tear. Even higher weights may be beneficial in some sectors but, with shifts to lighter materials, the main constraint is now the volume of lorry capacity rather than weight. In this respect longer lorries may be an option building on trials of such vehicles.

Review of the Impact of the Proposed EU Animal Transport Regulations on Livestock Movements in the HIE area

  • Issue: 24 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Scottish Islands Network
  • Client: HIE
  • Summary: This report evaluated the impact on the Highlands and Islands region of the proposed European Commission livestock transport regulations indicating that changed will have major implications for how the region’s livestock are transported and marketed. The major problems are the shortening of the journey time before a ‘rest’, an increase in the length of ‘rest time’, change in definition at time of market, the lower the stocking densities on vehicles and the introduction of training certificates for all people transporting livestock. The proposed regulation could accelerate agricultural decline perhaps dramatically.
  • Further information: http://www.hie.co.uk/HIE-sac-final-report.pdf

Shipping Hub Development Report

  • Issue: 27 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Dr Alf Baird (TRi Napier University)
  • Client: Scottish Executive
  • Summary: It was found that two major freight shipping hubs at Hunterston and Scapa Flow, Orkney would be able to economically handle the new generation of larger container ships. The report argues that the two Scottish ports need not be in direct comparison if both were developed. Such hubs can offer significant cost savings compared to current destination to destination transport by large cargo ships sailing from the Far East to European Ports.

Highways

Analysis of Responses To Consultation On Scotland’s Transport – The Regulation Of Utility Company Roadworks

Fast Answers Traffic Planning Software

  • Issue: 25 (PDF)

Scottish Road Traffic

  • Issue: 23 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: DfT
  • Summary: Dft has completed a revision of methods of estimating Scottish road traffic since 1993. This had concluded, contrary to previous recent estimates showing stabilised traffic, that there has been some growth in traffic since the mid 1990s though with average growth rates well below those of the 1980s. The process is explained in Scottish Transport Statistics, Vol 22, 2003 Chp 6.

Maritime

Forth and Clyde Ferry Studies

  • Issue: 28 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Professor Alfred Baird (Napier University)
  • Summary: Feasible ferry solutions are possible for the Clyde. An optimal solution could be high-frequency passenger ferries with 10 river stopping points – including Erskine, Clydebank and Braehead – and would also benefit social inclusion and area regeneration. For the Forth two ferry service options were studies. One was ‘vertical’ with links directly across the Firth between Leith (Edinburgh), Burntisland and Kirkaldy. The second was ‘horizontal’, running again from Leith as the main hub, westbound along the river with multiple stops at South Queensferry, Rosyth, Bo’ness, Grangemouth and Alloa. Such as system would allow for multiple cross river transport options, fast transits, and attractive alternatives to road transport congestion on all key corridors, also enabling social inclusion. High emphasis would have to be places on integration, and infrastructure would need significant investment.

Western Isles Ferry Fares Mechanism Report

  • Issue: 30 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Napier University’s Edinburgh Employment Research Institute and Transport Research Institute Maritime Research group
  • Partner researchers: Pedersen Consulting
  • Client: Western Isles Council
  • Summary: Studying alternative ferry fare mechanisms in the Western Isles. The key purpose of this study was to examine the methods and benefits of re-casting the fares and charges regime in the Western Isles, with the aim of increasing traffic volume and income on island ferry services and thereby enhance the economic performance of the Western Isles. Some fifty routes were compared world wide and while Western Isles passenger fares are around the middle of the comparative range they are high compared with other subsidised routes. Car rates are relatively high compared with all routes and significantly higher than other subsidised routes, and Commercial Vehicle charges are significantly higher than the general trend for other subsidised routes. The impacts of alternative options upon the economy were considered.

Policy

Devolution and Transport in the UK

  • Issue: 25 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: TRi
  • Partner researchers: ESRC
  • Contact: Prof. A. Smith

Keeping Existing Car Tax System

  • Issue: 24 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Open University
  • Partner researchers: Loughborough University and University of West of England
  • Client: ESRC
  • Summary: An ESRC ‘taxation futures for sustainable mobility project is examining ways in which the UK car taxation and charging system could be altered to be more effective in delivering government policies. Researchers concluded that tax revenue might decline due to fuel efficiency etc. This would be difficult to address under the existing taxation regime due to possible fuel protests as in 2000. Introducing fuel cell cars in significant numbers into he UK under the current taxation system would significantly cut car tax revenues.
  • Further information: http://www.transport.uwe.ac.uk/research/projects/taxation-futures.htm

New Roads and Health

  • Issue: 23 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Matt Egan (MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Glasgow)
  • Summary: A systematic review was carried out of observational studies measuring health impacts on local residents, pedestrians and road vehicle users following the opening of new roads in developed countries. 32 studies were included and critically appraised. The results indicate that new major urban road increase disturbance and severance in communities but have statistically insignificant effects on the incidence of accidents. Although accidents may increase on secondary roads, out of town bypasses reduce the incidence on injury accidents on main roads through towns. Bypasses reduce disturbance in towns, but increase disturbance for some residents. Injury accidents decrease across connecting routes between towns after new connecting highways open. The conclusions are that new roads may have both beneficial and adverse effects on health. More high quality research is required on health impacts of new roads, especially impacts on respiratory health, mental health, access to health care and physical exercise.

Public Transport

Integrated Ticketing in Scotland – Needs Analysis and Options

  • Issue: 28 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: TNS Social Research
  • Partner researchers: TRL, TRi
  • Client: Scottish Executive Development Department
  • Summary: The aim of this project was to provide an overview of the level of need and demand for future integrated ticketing schemes in Scotland and to inform the development of successful schemes. Integrated ticketing schemes need to be flexible enough to meet the needs and demands of different markets and different types of passenger. They need to be underpinned by integrated transport systems in order to be effective in encouraging public transport patronage and modal shift. Other ‘best practices’ in terms of successful integrated ticketing schemes include: offering a range of ticket durations; effective and active marketing; and strong operator buy-in. Potential barriers to the success of future integrated ticketing schemes include: securing operator buy-in; identifying an acceptable method for allocating revenue; pricing tickets at the right level to secure passenger uptake; and high (initial) administration and marketing costs. Ideally, for a ticket to be fully ‘integrated’ it should be multi-modal and multi-operator, including more than one bus operator. However, in practice, where bus is the dominant mode a multi-operator bus ticket may be considered as integrated.

Monitoring the Introduction of the National Minimum Concessionary Fare 2001-204

  • Issue: 24 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: David McGuigan, Colin Buchanan and Partners
  • Client: Scottish Executive
  • Summary: This study monitored the impact of the introduction of free concessionary fares on 30 September 2002.
  • Contact: David McGuigan, Colin Buchanan and Partners

Monitoring the National Minimum Concessionary Fare DD Research Findings 2004 No 179

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Colin Buchanan and Partners
  • Client: Scottish Executive
  • Summary: The investigation aimed to monitor the introduction of the free local off-peak concessionary bus travel in Scotland on 30th September 2002 for women aged 60 and over and for men aged 60 and over on 1st April 2003. The monitoring was undertaken as a before and after study using a variety of methods to collect quantitative and qualitative information regarding concessionary trip making. This Findings Paper summarises the final report and includes before and after comparisons of concessionary travel behaviour and attitudes.
  • Further information: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/cru/resfinds/drf179-00.asp

Qualities Required by Citizens for High Quality Public Transport (Phase 1 of Strand 5) 2003-2004

  • Issue: 24 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Alan Howes, Colin Buchanan and Partners
  • Client: HITRANS
  • Summary: Literature Review of world-wide sources to identify the attributes of public transport most important in each modal transfer and identify needs for further research.
  • Contact: Alan Howes, Colin Buchanan and Partners

Rail

Comparative Performance Data from French Tramway Systems

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Semaly
  • Partner researchers: FaberMaunsell
  • Summary: This report argues that French cities have more suitable fiscal, political and planning structures for delivering successful light rail than equivalent structures in the UK.
  • Further information: http://www.localtransporttoday.co.uk/reports

Lex Partnership Analysis

  • Issue: 27 (PDF)
  • Summary: Analysis in support of ScotRail enfranchising, has concluded that 60% of rail growth in SPT area in the 1990s was due to SPT actions. The other significant factors were GDP growth, population change and road traffic trends. Train service performance and fare changes had much smaller impacts.

Reopening Waverly Line for timber ‘not justified’.

  • Issue: 24 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: IBI Group
  • Client: Scottish Enterprise, the Borders Timber Transport Group and the forestry industry
  • Summary: The volume of timber from the Borders and Kielder forests would not justify the reopening of the Waverly Line south of Hawick, and the beneficial impact on the roads network would be minimal, according to an IBI group report. The ability of rail to handle growth in timber movement is limited in the Borders, primarily because the average distances for sourcing (less than 100 miles) are too short to make use of rail economic.

Tay Rail Priorities

  • Issue: 24 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Steer Davies Gleave
  • Partner researchers: Babtie
  • Client: Angus, Dundee, Fife, Perth and Kinross Councils and Scottish Enterprise Tayside
  • Summary: A study into the rail needs of the Tay Estuary area has recommended a package of measures including an hourly service between Arbroath and Perth, a new station at Dundee West and enhancements to existing stations.

Road Pricing

Edinburgh, Road Pricing and the Boundary Problem: Issues of Equity and Efficiency

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Rage. F, Grieco. M and McQuaid. R. W, (TRi and ErI, Napier University and TSU)
  • Client: Scotecon
  • Summary: This study considered some of the publicly argued evidence on road user charging and especially the effects at the boundaries. It is recommended the carrying out of an equity audit in advance of road congestion charging.
  • Further information: http://www.scotecon.net/publications/Greico%20McQuaid%20Congestion%20Final.doc

Road Pricing

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: DfT
  • Summary: Satellite based electronic pricing varied by time of day and type of vehicle is feasible and could be introduced in 10 to 15 years on a revenue-neutral basis including cuts in fuel duty and the abolition of most vehicle licences. DfT has also suggested greater use of local authority congestion charging as an interim measure. The House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee considers that significant rises in fuel taxes are required to ensure that target cuts in greenhouse gas emissions are achieved. In two recent papers Alan McKinnon of the Logistics Research Centre at Heriot-Watt University has warned of the high operating and financial costs of satellite based heavy lorry charging and has recommended a lower cost approach based on tacographs.

Road Safety

Good Practice in Developing an Inter-Agency Approach to Road Safety

  • Issue: 27 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Colin Buchannan and Partners
  • Client: Scottish Executive
  • Summary: A study to research and prepare guidelines on good practice in ensuring road safety is factored into major regeneration developments. The guidelines have now been published and they were launched in October at the Scottish Road Safety Campaign’s Annual Conference in Dunblane.

Good Practice in Developing an Inter-Agency Approach to Road Safety

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Colin Buchanan and Partners
  • Client: Scottish Executive
  • Summary: A review of good practice in community regeneration projects. Includes guidelines on community safety, including road safety in community projects.

Lothian and Borders Safety Camera Project

  • Issue: 24 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Colin Buchannan and Partners
  • Client: Lothian and Borders Safety Camera Partnership
  • Summary: A public opinion survey and related research into attitudes and behaviour related to safety cameras in Edinburgh and Scottish Borders.
  • Contact: David McGuigan, Colin Buchanan and Partners

Motorcycle Accidents and Casualties in Scotland 1992-2002

  • Issue: 27 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: TRL
  • Client: Scottish Executive
  • Summary: The key aim of this research was to investigate motorcycle accident trends and identify measures that could be taken to reduce the number of severity of motorcycle accidents in Scotland. The number of motorcycle accidents in Scotland is increasing. The rate of increase from 1996 to 2002 is approaching 9% per year for killed and serious casualties and just over 6% per year for all casualties. The observed increase in motorcycle casualties is closely associated with the increased number of licensed motorcycles. The casualty rate per million kilometres and per 1000 licensed bikes is not increasing. The number of accidents involving younger riders has fallen, but the number of accidents involving 31-45 year olds has increased.

Parental Attitudes to Road Safety Education

  • Issue: 27 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: ODS
  • Client: Scottish Executive
  • Summary: The main findings of this research were that parents perceive themselves as having the main responsibility to develop road safety awareness and skills in their children. Their most prevalent approach to road safety education is by example in ‘real life’ situations. While they tend to use key road safety messages such as ‘Stop, Look, Listen’ generally approaches to road safety education by parents are ad hoc. Most parents change their own behaviour when in road related situations when they are accompanied by their children to act as ‘role models’. Parents have a high level of confidence in their children’s road user skills, with the main risks faced by children perceived as external factors, such as ‘speeding motorists’, rather that the behaviour of their child. Some parents expressed concern that road safety awareness deteriorated as their children became teenagers or when they were with friends. There is a need for educational initiatives to ‘target; certain groups of parents whose children may be more at risk of involvement in a road accident.

Road Casualties

  • Issue: 23 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: DfT
  • Summary: The ‘Road Casualties Great Britain 2002 Annual Report’ was published in October. It contains final figures giving detailed information on the number of people killed and injured in road accidents in Great Britain in 2002. 3,431 people were killed and injured on Britain’s roads in 002, 1 per cent less than in 2001. 40 fewer children were killed on the roads in 2002 than in 2001, a fall of 18 per cent.
  • Further information: http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_transstats/documents/sectionhomepage/dft_transstats_page.hcsp

Road Safety Strategy

  • Issue: 24 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Centre for Transport Studies (University College London)
  • Partner researchers: Babtie Group
  • Client: Motorists Forum within CfIT
  • Summary: It was recommended that the blood alcohol limit should be reduced from 80 to 50mg per 100ml of blood, bringing the UK into line with most other European Countries; motorists exceeding the speed limit by a large margin should be punished with more points on their driving licence than those travelling at ‘just above the speed limit’.

Rural Economy

Minimising Peripherality in the Highlands and Islands

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Steer Davies Gleave
  • Partner researchers: HITRANS
  • Client: HIE, Scottish Executive
  • Summary: This work focused on reducing peripherally in Highland Region. The Case for Rail highlighted the importance of the rail network for residents and visitors, while the Economic Appraisal for an Expanded Air Services Network assessed the benefits of improving air services to the Highlands and Islands. Other recent commissions have included an assessment of affordability of travel to work and education, and making recommendations o the Rural Community Transport Initiative and the Rural Petrol Stations Grant Scheme for enhancements across the region.

Review of Rural Petrol Station Grant Scheme

  • Issue: 27 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Steer Davies Gleave
  • Client: Scottish Executive
  • Summary: The Rural Petrol Stations Grant Scheme has been in place since 1998 with the objective ‘to support the retention of a sustainable and accessible network of fuel supply in rural Scotland’. This study evaluated the funding mechanism of the grant and the benefits that arise from it. Options for future changes to the scheme were identified and appraised, and from these, recommendations made. Following the review the Scottish Minister for Transport announced an expansion of the scheme from 1 Oct 2004.

The CO-OPERATE Project

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: DHC, Aberdeen University
  • Client: DfT Future Integrated Transport Research programme
  • Summary: This involved surveys of residents of Aberdeenshire, analysis of literature and development of a toolkit to assist with the development of individualised marketing programmes to promote socially and financially sustainable approaches to the future development of rural transport. The project findings have wide applicability. It was funded thought he DfT Future Integrated Transport Research programme and completed by Aberdeen University and DHC in May 2004.

Tourism

Edinburgh Visitor Survey

  • Issue: 27 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Lynn Jones Research
  • Summary: E-mail addresses of visitors to Edinburgh were collected and then directing them to the survey using Visitrac, their own online survey and reporting system. Edinburgh visitors are asked over 40 questions on a wide range of subjects including transport. Of the 639 visitors surveyed who visited Edinburgh between May and August 2004, 30% arrived by plane, 21% by train etc.

Transport and Economy

Economic Impact of Edinburgh’s Integrated Transport Initiative

  • Issue: 23 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: David Simmonds, MVA
  • Client: Scottish Enterprise Edinburgh and Lothian, Scottish Executive
  • Summary: This study predicts that congestion charging will initially slow economic growth in the city. Over time associated transport improvements, such as proposed trams, will neutralize the effects of the charge. The Study used a land use transport interaction/local economic impact model to estimate the effects. Three academics reviewed the modelling results, concluding that they had expected the final net impact of the ITI package to be more substantial than the model results suggested although quantification is not easy.

The Economic Impact of Ryanair on Prestwick Airport

  • Issue: 24 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: SQW
  • Partner researchers: NFO World Group
  • Client: Scottish Enterprise Ayrshire
  • Summary: Estimate the economic impact of the Ryanair route, with particular emphasis on passenger information such as demographics, reasons for travelling, levels of satisfaction and contribution to the local economy. Visitors landing at Glasgow Prestwick International Airport added £89million to Scotland – and new flights by the carrier are expected to make this figure grow even more. Ayrshire alone has benefited from Ryanair’s presence at Prestwick by between £13.8m and £18.4 m. The presence of Ryanair flights was estimated to support between 620 and 720 full time jobs in Ayrshire, and between 1300 and 1800 across Scotland. In total, 831 interviews were held between August 2002 and July 2003. In this period, 53% of Ryanair’s passengers were outbound Scots.

Transport and Rural Economies

  • Issue: 30 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: DHC
  • Partner researchers: Napier University Employment Research Institute
  • Client: Countryside Agency
  • Summary: Sought to identify a more comprehensive framework for considering relationships between transport and economic development in rural areas. Using case studies across England, in conjunction with relevant data and literature, a framework was identified for considering economic impacts from small schemes such as Wheels to Work to large projects including major road improvements. It was concluded that the relationship between transport and rural economies are defined by both accessibility and by the capacity and skills of people and businesses. Key factors which influence these relationships. Key factors influencing these relationships are infrastructure, people and knowledge networks; quality and reliability of service provision; skills and training; culture and expectations; legislation, administration and taxation.
  • Further information: http://www.dhc1.co.uk/projects/transport_rural_economies.html

Transport Appraisal

Insatiable Road Demand

  • Issue: 23 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Peter Romilly (Abertay University)
  • Summary: This research deals with the problem of evaluating road building/improvement schemes when the demand for road space is ‘insatiable’. This is reported on the STSG website. One conclusion with an important policy implication for the evaluation of enlarged road capacity is that methods of cost-benefit analysis may tend to overestimate the net benefits of such proposals by a significant amount. Although the model is developed in the context of roads it could be applied to air travel.
  • Contact: Peter Romilly

Travel Behaviour

Attitudes to car use and modal shift in Scotland

Barriers to Modal Shift (DD Research Findings 2003 No 171)

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: DHC
  • Partner researchers: Peter Jones (Unveristy of Westminster)
  • Client: Scottish Executive
  • Summary: This study was commissioned to identify the actual barriers preventing people from travelling by rail, bus, walking or cycling, or not undertaking a journey at all. It sought to build on, and input to, transport planning and analysis being undertaken for the Glasgow area involving the strategies and local plans of the local councils and SPT.
  • Further information: http://wwww.scotland.gov.uk/cru/resfinds/drf171-oo.asp

Evaluation of the 2003/2004 Festive Drink Drive Campaign

  • Issue: 27 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: MRUK
  • Client: Scottish Executive
  • Summary: Research was aimed at evaluating the 2003 drink drive festive campaign and the broader ‘Don’t risk it’ Drink and Drive Campaign. Findings included: almost all (94%) of respondents drink alcohol either regularly or occasionally when socialising. Binge drinking occurs mostly amongst both young men and women and is more prevalent amongst men and in particular amongst men in the 17-29 year old age range. The majority (98%) of respondents agreed it would be better to drink and drive if only going a short distance (91%). Drinking and driving was deemed acceptable amongst some respondents if certain caveats were applied. Discussions revealed that individuals will make a judgement on factors such as size, gender, body weight, and driving experience when considering whether to drive after drinking. A third (34%) of respondents had driven within a few hours of having a drink. Eighteen per cent of respondents had driven when they perceived themselves to be over the limit.

Smarter Choices – Changing the Way We Travel

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Cairns. S, Sloman. L, Newson. C, Anable. J, Kirkbride. A, Goodwin. P
  • Client: DfT
  • Summary: This report deals with the ability of ‘soft’ transport policy measures to influence travel demand by giving better rural information and opportunities, helping people to choose to cut their car use while enhancing the attractiveness of alternatives. Coverage includes: Workplace and school travel plans; personalised travel planning, travel awareness campaigns and public transport information and marketing; car clubs and car sharing scheme; teleworking, teleconferencing and home shopping. This report draws on earlier studies of soft measures, new evidence from the UK and abroad, case study interviews relating to 24 specific initiatives, and the experience of commercial public and voluntary stakeholders involved in organising such schemes. Each soft factor is analysed separately, followed by an assessment of combined impacts. The assessment focuses on two different policy scenarios ( ‘high’ and ‘low’ volume intensity) for the next ten years. The main conclusion (with some caveats) is that, if implemented in a supportive policy context, soft measures can facilitate choices to reduce car use and offer sufficiently good value for money that they merit serious consideration for an expanded role in local and national transport strategy. An earlier 2002 study by Halcrow was much less optimistic about likely effects of such measures.
  • Further information: http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_susttravel/documents/page/dft_susttravel_029721.hcsp

Travel Behaviour in Edinburgh

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Tim Ryley (TRi Napier University)
  • Client: STSG
  • Summary: This survey of 977 households examined the attitudes of car-users, cyclists and walkers to various policy measures. It found that car use was most likely to be reduced by a gradual doubling of the cost of petrol (70%), by more frequent local buses (61%) and by a £2 car charge to enter the city centre during the day (50%). Cyclists attached the greatest importance to more spending on off-road cycle routes (69%) and more spending on improving cycle lanes (49%). 52% felt that safety concerns deterred cycling in the city. 70% of walkers attached most importance to greater spending on pavements and their maintenance.

Travel Plans

Scottish Airports employee catchment study

  • Issue: 26 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: DHC
  • Client: BAA
  • Summary: This mapped access to Glasgow, Edinburgh and Aberdeen airports, finding that for Glasgow and Aberdeen airports there were pockets of unemployed close to the airport where there was a prospect for practical public transport improvements to significantly improve accessibility. For all the airports the work also suggested how to develop marketing and partnership approaches to overcome information and cost barriers to access through the airport transport forums.

Youth Transport

Barnardos’s Scotland Survey

  • Issue: 27 (PDF)
  • Summary: This suggests that children stay indoors due to fears of speeding traffic. More use of 20 mph speed limits and local play areas is recommended.

Policy and Practice for School Transport Contracts

  • Issue: 28 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Scottish Consumer Council
  • Summary: SCC examined local authority policy and practice in school transport provision to determine whether the needs of pupils and parents are being met. The research examined various aspects of local authority policy and practice including the arrangements for contracting and monitoring of school transport services; information to parents; issues around pupil behaviour, and complaints handling. SCC found that some of the practice is very good: all local authorities apply the minimum walking distance criteria and all make good provisions for those with a physical disability or injury. However, the main finding was that there is no consistency in the quality of school transport across Scotland and that there are unacceptable variations in local authority practice, even accounting for necessary local circumstances and discretion. The report makes 14 recommendations to the Scottish Executive and local authorities. If all pupils are to have a safe and reliable school transport service, which will encourage them to use public transport beyond their school days, and give confidence to parents, then a more consistent quality of service across Scotland is needed.
  • Further information: http://www.scotconsumer.org.uk/

Safely to School

  • Issue: 24 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: SCRE
  • Partner researchers: ODS
  • Client: Scottish Executive
  • Summary: It was identified that 30 Scottish Local Authorities are or have been involved in Safer Routes to Schools Projects (SRTS) and 26 have appointed or plan to appoint School Travel Co-ordinators. Schools have responded in a variety of ways to the challenge of integrating road safety into the school curriculum. Most school pupils prefer interactive approaches to learning and teaching about road safety. Parents believe that the main responsibility for their children’s safety lies with them, but they expect local authorities, the police, schools and other road users to play a part.
  • Further information: http://www.scottishexecutive.gov.uk/library5/transport/aptc-01.asp

The Health Benefits of Walking to School

  • Issue: 23 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: Roger Mackett (Professor of Transport Studies at UCL)
  • Summary: It was found that overall, older children are more active than the younger and that the boys are more active than girls. The direct health benefits in terms of exercise from encouraging more children to walk to school were seen as limited. Children are already more active on weekdays than at weekends. Over 90% of the sample group reached the recommended level of physical activity on weekdays. At the weekends far fewer did so, with only just over 50% of the girls doing so on Sundays. Children who walk to school use many more calories than those who travel by car. The Year 8 children who walk use more calories in a week travelling to and from school than they would doing two hours of PE. However, school travel does not form a large part of total weekly exercise by children. Increased walking and cycling to school has a health value but greater benefits may come through local traffic and speed reduction and increased social interaction. The Health Development Agency has advised that 20mph limits in residential areas could cut child deaths and injuries with particular benefits for lower income families.

Young People Aware of Sustainable Travel Issues

  • Issue: 24 (PDF)
  • Lead researchers: DHC
  • Partner researchers: Kings College London
  • Client: Scottish Executive
  • Summary: Most young people have a good awareness of sustainable transport issues but that this does not necessarily impact on their attitudes or behaviour. The research highlighted the importance of understanding age, gender and location differences when targeting children with specific messages about transport.
  • Further information: http://www.scottishexecutive.gov.uk/library5/transport/cast-00.asp

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